Jessica considers herself a home improvement and design enthusiast. She grew up surrounded by constant home improvement projects and owes most of what she knows to helping her dad renovate her childhood home. Being a Los Angeles resident, Jessica spends a lot of her time looking for her next DIY project and sharing her love for home design.
How Long Does Wood Glue Take to Dry? (Find Out Now!)
Wood glue is a variety of adhesive that is used to bond pieces of wood tightly together. This tool can be essential when doing a number of home improvement projects, both interior and exterior. If your focus is on crafting gorgeous woodwork that will stand the test of time, knowing how long wood glue takes to dry can be very valuable.
The amount of time it takes for wood to dry is dependent on a number of factors including the quality of the glue, humidity level, ambient temperature, and the type of wood and its moisture content. With these factors in mind, wood glue can take anywhere from 20 minutes to a couple of hours, to even an entire day.
That is quite a range for drying time. To better understand exactly how long it takes for wood glue to dry, let’s examine all the factors that affect drying time. We’ll also explore various types of wood glue, and the difference between drying time and curing time.
Table of Contents
Factors That Influence Wood Glue Drying Time
The instructions listed on various types of wood glue establish the drying time for that particular brand. However, it’s important to keep in mind that this drying time was determined in an ideal setting, and the actual time your glue takes to dry will depend on the environment.
As a result, when you’re determining how long you should wait for your wood glue to dry, you must consider a number of factors. The following listed below may speed up or delay the process:
- Wood Glue Quality: There are a wide variety of adhesives available on the market, consisting of different materials such as plastic, animal hide, and certain chemicals. For best results, always avoid low-quality, inexpensive glues and choose a wood glue that is waterproof, less visible, and high-quality. Just as the type of wood glue determines the quality of your results, it also determines how long it takes to dry.
- Humidity: Humidity is the most important factor to consider when it comes to wood glue drying time. If you aren’t aware already, humidity refers to the moisture in the air. If your environment contains low humidity, wood glue will dry faster. Whereas, higher levels of humidity mean slower drying times. If you live in a particularly humid area, consider doubling the recommended drying time or waiting at least 24 hours.
- Ambient Temperature: The temperature of your workspace can also directly influence the time needed for wood glue to fully dry. For most woodworkers, the temperature does not become an issue. However, if you’re working in a cold garage or outside on a hot day, the drying time will be affected. Never use a hairdryer or heat gun to attempt speeding up the process. This can cause the glue texture to melt, resulting in cracks and humidity concerns.
- Type of Wood: Another factor to consider is the condition of the wood you are working with. More specifically, how wet or dry is the wood? Wood glue dries by dehydration and as the moisture leaves, the glue hardens and bonds to the surface. If the wood you are using has a higher moisture content, it will take much longer for the glue to dry. Wood that is damp or contains excess moisture will need additional drying time than what the bottle indicates.
What is Clamping?
Before we proceed, it’s important to understand what clamping is and why it’s recommended when using wood glue. Manufacturers recommend that after the wood glue is applied, the joined wood pieces should be clamped together to ensure proper adhesion. The instructions on the bottle will generally indicate when it is safe to remove the clamps from unscrewed joints.
This process may take 30 minutes to an hour, while screwed joints should be clamped for at least 24 hours. Clamping time will typically depend on the type of glue you are working with. For example, polyurethane glue requires clamping for at least 45 minutes.
Types of Wood Glue
Wood glue has been in use for many years, and while the concept has been around for a while, the technology has adapted and changed over time. Nowadays, when you go to your local home improvement center, you have many different types of adhesives to choose from for various applications. Here are the five types of wood glue on the market:
- Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive, or PVA, is the most widely used type of wood glue. It is also cost-effective, easy to apply, and has no color or odor. The biggest advantage of PVA wood glue is that you can find it virtually anywhere. However, you must be careful to wipe off any excess after application, as it will be visible and can affect the quality of your results. You can use masking tape to keep this type of glue away from undesirable areas.
- Epoxy wood glue is typically used for exterior wooden projects, as it is water-resistant. It typically comes in two parts, the hardener and the resin. Before you can apply epoxy glue, you need to mix the correct proportions of the resin and hardener. The major downside to this type of glue is the short working time. However, it can also be used as a filler for porous wood surfaces.
- Polyurethane wood glue, or most known by its trade name as ‘Gorilla Glue,’ is triggered by moisture. Once activated, it will swell, dry, and create a strong bond. It dries quickly, and is waterproof, making it ideal for exterior projects that will be exposed to the elements. Prior to applying Gorilla Glue, it’s best to wet the wood with the damp rag. Then, after application, quickly apply the clamps.
- Hide wood glues are exactly as they sound, made from the hide of animals. For years, it has been the preferred adhesive among carpenters due to its strength. Hide wood glue can be found in two forms: hot hide glue and bottled hide glue. Hot hide glue is made by heating the granules of the glue with water. As it heats up, it turns to liquid and into a solid as it cools. Whereas, bottled hide glue comes in liquid form, is not visible, and will not affect the finish.
- Cyanoacrylate glue, or often referred to as super glue or instant glue, is made by gluing two hard pieces of stock together. It cures quickly without the need for clamping and you can even add an accelerant to speed up the process. This glue does tend to dry very hard, meaning it could potentially break upon impact. Most woodworkers use cyanoacrylate glue to temporarily attach wood pieces that are too difficult to clamp.
How Long Does Wood Glue Take to Dry?
The following are the drying times, indicated by the manufacturers, for the most common types of wood glues. However, make sure that you also factor in humidity, glue quality, temperature, and the moisture content of your wood, as these factors all have a major impact on how long wood glue takes to dry.
|Type of Wood Glue||Drying Time|
|Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive (PVA)||18-24 hours, with 30 minutes of clamping|
|Epoxy||20 minutes to several hours|
|Polyurethane Wood Glue||24 hours, with 1-2 hours of clamping|
|Hide Wood Glue||24 hours, without clamping|
|Cyanoacrylate Glue||8 to 24 hours|
When in doubt and if you’d rather be safe than sorry, consider waiting a full 24 hours for your wood glue to dry completely. Although this may seem like overkill for certain types of glues and situations, it’s always better to air on the side of caution.
Drying Time vs. Curing Time
An important thing to understand when you’re working with adhesives is the difference between drying time and curing time. Under ideal conditions, wood glue may appear completely dry and the clamps can be removed in just under an hour. However, just because the glue is dry does not mean that it has finished curing.
When wood glue has cured this means that it has dried enough for the wood pieces to be fully bonded together and the project to hold together on its own. Curing can take substantially more time than drying. Therefore, always allow extra time for your adhesive to cure before you proceed any further with your project. Wood glue generally takes 24 hours or more to fully cure.
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